The Doctrine of Passive Non-resistance
Primary goals of this teaching are:
• To realize as the body of Christ, God is our defense
• To prepare ourselves spiritually and physically for coming persecution
• To examine our walks in light of Jesus’ commands
• To obey Jesus’ commands to resist defending oneself, family, or neighbors against evil men in an ungodly way
Passive Non-Resistance Defined
Passive – receiving, enduring, or submitting without resistance:
Non-Resistance –negate the act or power of resisting, opposing, or withstanding.
Some background concerning my life and views for the reader’s understanding. I have a family that is steeped in past proud military traditions. On my father’s side of the family; my father was a Marine for four years earning Staff Sgt before getting out after the Bay of Pigs fiasco. My grandfather was a waist gunner in a B-24 stationed with the 8th Air Force in England during WWII. He was shot down by Anti aircraft fire on Jan 7th, 1944. Most of the crew bailed out except the tail and ball turret gunners, and my grandfather. The SS gestapo shot and killed them as they exited the downed aircraft. They were not known for taking POW’s who were injured in the fighting. My great grandfather was an infantry man in WWI in the south of France in 1917. He survived the war. My great great grandfather was a Colonel in the CSA part of the Tennessee Volunteers killed at Rocky Top, TN. My matriarchal side of my family I only know of a great uncle who has retired from the U.S. Coast Guard service as an Admiral. I served 21 years in the U.S. Navy as a Boatswains Mate, Quartermaster, and Signalman retiring in 2001 as a Chief Quartermaster. I served on five different warships, have four rows of medals, campaign ribbons, unit awards. I spent upwards of 15 years stationed aboard ship, 12 of that actually either deployed overseas or underway training to go overseas. So, needless to say, I was a patriot to the core. Sworn to defend the Constitution of the United States from enemies both foreign and domestic. When the Lord convicted me of these issues over the course of some months I did not take these matters lightly! Here is a book, along with the Bible, which really helped to solidify my views in seeking the truth on these issues. A Change of Allegiance by Dean Taylor
Scriptural support for Passive Non Resistance
Matt 5:38-48 You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ 39 But I tell you not to resist an evil person. But whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also. 40 If anyone wants to sue you and take away your tunic, let him have your cloak also. 41 And whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 42 Give to him who asks you, and from him who wants to borrow from you do not turn away. 43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ 44 But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you, 45 that you may be sons of your Father in heaven; for He makes His sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust. 46 For if you love those who love you, what reward have you? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? 47 And if you greet your brethren only, what do you do more than others? Do not even the tax collectorsj do so? 48 Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.
[Resist GR 436 anthistēmi än-thē’-stā-mē 1. to set one’s self against, to withstand, resist, oppose]
Matt 10:16-39 “Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves. Therefore be wise as serpents and harmless as doves. 17 But beware of men, for they will deliver you up to councils and scourge you in their synagogues. 18 You will be brought before governors and kings for My sake, as a testimony to them and to the Gentiles. 19 But when they deliver you up, do not worry about how or what you should speak. For it will be given to you in that hour what you should speak; 20 for it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you. 21 “Now brother will deliver up brother to death, and a father his child; and children will rise up against parents and cause them to be put to death. 22 And you will be hated by all for My name’s sake. But he who endures to the end will be saved. 23 When they persecute you in this city, flee to another. For assuredly, I say to you, you will not have gone through the cities of Israel before the Son of Man comes.24 “A disciple is not above his teacher, nor a servant above his master. 25 It is enough for a disciple that he be like his teacher, and a servant like his master. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub,[d] how much more will they call those of his household! 26 Therefore do not fear them. For there is nothing covered that will not be revealed, and hidden that will not be known. 27 “Whatever I tell you in the dark, speak in the light; and what you hear in the ear, preach on the housetops. 28 And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. But rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. 29 Are not two sparrows sold for a copper coin? And not one of them falls to the ground apart from your Father’s will. 30 But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 31 Do not fear therefore; you are of more value than many sparrows. 32 “Therefore whoever confesses Me before men, him I will also confess before My Father who is in heaven. 33 But whoever denies Me before men, him I will also deny before My Father who is in heaven.34 “Do not think that I came to bring peace on earth. I did not come to bring peace but a sword. 35 For I have come to set a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law’; 36 and a man’s enemies will be those of his own household.’ 37 He who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me. And he who loves son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me. 38 And he who does not take his cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me. 39 He who finds his life will lose it, and he who loses his life for My sake will find it.
Luke 6:27-36 “But I say to you who hear: Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, 28 bless those who curse you, and pray for those who spitefully use you. 29 To him who strikes you on the one cheek, offer the other also. And from him who takes away your cloak, do not withhold your tunic either. 30 Give to everyone who asks of you. And from him who takes away your goods do not ask them back. 31 And just as you want men to do to you, you also do to them likewise.32 “But if you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 33 And if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 34 And if you lend to those from whom you hope to receive back, what credit is that to you? For even sinners lend to sinners to receive as much back. 35 But love your enemies, do good, and lend, hoping for nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High. For He is kind to the unthankful and evil. 36 Therefore be merciful, just as your Father also is merciful.
Rom 12:14-21 Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. 15 Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep. 16 Be of the same mind toward one another. Do not set your mind on high things, but associate with the humble. Do not be wise in your own opinion.17 Repay no one evil for evil. Have regard for good things in the sight of all men. 18 If it is possible, as much as depends on you, live peaceably with all men. 19 Beloved, do not avenge yourselves, but rather give place to wrath; for it is written, “Vengeance is Mine, I will repay,”says the Lord. 20 Therefore “ If your enemy is hungry, feed him; If he is thirsty, give him a drink; For in so doing you will heap coals of fire on his head.” 21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.
John 18:35-37 Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered You to me. What have You done?”36 Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, My servants would fight, so that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now My kingdom is not from here.”37 Pilate therefore said to Him, “Are You a king then?”Jesus answered, “You say rightly that I am a king. For this cause I was born, and for this cause I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.
A Few Distinctions
We need to make a few distinctions here: 1. persecutions by the world 2. persecutions by the professing ‘church’. Both of these types of persecutions come from the world which is under the authority of Satan’s system of lies and deception. But, the latter is very deadly because it is very subtle and causes divisions in the real body of Christ.
Some Historical Background of the Persecutions of the Body of Jesus Christ.
Constantine brought a new era in the church era; marrying the church with the state. This hybrid gospel fostered corruption in the church at every level. Christians who for the first three hundred years of the church were brutalized by the world were now accepted. Persecution subsided for the time. This hybrid corrupt church began to make up it’s own traditions and theologies. Under Constantine’s close scrutiny the organized visible church began to conduct councils which were necessary to uphold this mutant gospel and suppress the gospel of love in Jesus. The visible state church began to persecute those who would not agree with their authority, interpretation, or translation of the Bible.
But here is what Jesus taught:
Matt 26:51-53 And suddenly, one of those who were with Jesus stretched out his hand and drew his sword, struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear.52 But Jesus said to him, “Put your sword in its place, for all who take the sword will perish by the sword. 53 Or do you think that I cannot now pray to My Father, and He will provide Me with more than twelve legions of angels?
Early Church Believers thoughts on PNR
THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS TO THE SMYRAEANS. ECF Vol 1 Ch 4 para 2
But I guard you beforehand from these beasts in the shape of men, from those beasts in the shape of men, whom you must not only not receive, but, if it be possible, not even meet with; only you must pray to God for them, if by any means they may be brought to repentance, which, however, will be very difficult. Yet Jesus Christ, who is our true life, has the power of[effecting] this. But if these things were done by our Lord only in appearance, then am I also only in appearance bound. And why have I also surrendered myself to death, to fire, to the sword, to the wild beasts? But,[in fact,] he who is near to the sword is near to God; he that is among the wild beasts is in company with God; provided only he be so m the name of Jesus Christ. I undergo all these things that I may suffer together with Him,
The Donatists movement which lasted about 400 years refused to bow down to this new mutant gospel of Constantine. However, they appealed the injustices of the North African Catholics to Constantine to resolve issues between the RCC and the local Donatist bishops. They were suppressed and maligned for a hundred years and then in 411 they finally had a time for disputing the matters in Carthage.
A disputation was then arranged in Carthage (411), Collatio cum Donatistis. Two hundred and eighty six Catholic and two hundred and seventy-nine Donatist bishops were present: Augustine and Aurelius were the speakers of the former; Primianus and Patilianus, those of the latter. For three days the debate lasted, but no result was arrived at. Finally the imperial commissioner declared the Donatists vanquished, and very severe measures were decided upon against them. In 414 they lost all civil rights; in 415 they were forbidden to assemble for worshipping, under penalty of death. Nevertheless, they had not become extinct, when, in the seventh century, the Saracens(Islam) occupied the country, and destroyed the African Church and the RCC of that area.
SOURCE: Early Church Website
Augustine’s false teachings have lead millions astray from the gospel of peace, into a gospel of the sword. These empowered councils united with the earthly kings, queens, governments, bishops, and popes would be responsible for the massive horrors of what would become the crusades and inquisitions.
Many Muslims point to the Crusades as an illustration of violent church action. It is true that many unethical acts were done during the military campaigns of the Crusades. It was a time in history that scholars have labeled the “Dark Ages.” Muslim forces had been attacking Christian countries for centuries. Their conquests included the “Holy Land” of Israel. The motivation for the Crusades found its root in reports that Muslims were desecrating Christian holy sites and persecuting Christians on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The first knights took their vows in AD 1095 when Pope Urban II organized the troops to “liberate the Holy Land from the Muhammadans.” Many of the Crusaders went beyond their mission and forgot their Christian ideals as they sought earthly revenge and treasure. Their atrocities, however, were not motivated by the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
SOURCE: A Topical Study of Islam by M. J. Fisher, M.Div.
We can see in church history this problem of professing Christians taking up arms against others when Jesus taught us to love our neighbor and pray for our enemies. Sometimes the ones being persecuted were Christians who are trying to be obedient to Christ not a particular religious system or government.
Probably the most famous protagonist of the just war theory is John Calvin, who used force to kill, torture and imprison his neighbors in the name of God. From the Calvin Seminary website we find:
An aspect of Calvin’s teaching on the state relates to his position on war. This study shows that Calvin positioned himself in continuity with the medieval just war tradition established by Augustine of Hippo. He did not believe in either element of what constituted a holy war—authorization by the church or the prosecution of war without restraint. He stood within the mainstream tradition when it came to both the jus ad bellum and the jus in bello. He always insisted that the private individual may only offer passive resistance to a ruler’s ungodly commands. A parliamentary body alone is authorized by God to resist a tyrannical prince.
SOURCE: Calvin College Website Mark Lawson article
This is exactly why the ‘Christians’ during the Civil War in our own country wore both blue and gray! Brother against brother, son against father, uncle against nephew, and cousin against cousin were not uncommon situations across the Mason Dixon line. If someone is ready to kill one of our children what would we be our response? Of course no one wants a loved one killed at the hands of an evil person. I would do everything in my power short of violence to protect my family. I pray I would respond with: laying down my life in love, prayer, family fleeing, command in Jesus’ name, pleading, exhortation to come to Christ, informing them that they could do nothing lest God allowed them, and defend them with my body from the attackers. So, please dear reader do not say that those of our passive view would do nothing. That is the farthest from the truth, we would do nothing in regards to carnal weaponry, military or martial art tactics to kill those who have made themselves our enemies.
Matt 10:37-39 He who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me. And he who loves son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me. 38 And he who does not take his cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me. 39 He who finds his life will lose it, and he who loses his life for My sake will find it.
I must confess this has not been my attitude at all until the early 2009 when I considered what Jesus taught on these issues. My lifelong dedication to patriotism, country, honor, etc was evaporating before my eyes. We must realize that if we kill someone, then we have sent them into eternity, no matter how horrible the earthly deed/s they are committing. The Bible states that God holds the keys to life and death, not us.
Rom 13:1-7 Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. 2 Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves. 3 For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to evil. Do you want to be unafraid of the authority? Do what is good, and you will have praise from the same. 4 For he is God’s minister to you for good. But if you do evil, be afraid; for he does not bear the sword in vain; for he is God’s minister, an avenger to execute wrath on him who practices evil. 5 Therefore you must be subject, not only because of wrath but also for conscience’ sake. 6 For because of this you also pay taxes, for they are God’s ministers attending continually to this very thing. 7 Render therefore to all their due: taxes to whom taxes are due, customs to whom customs, fear to whom fear, honor to whom honor.
In Rom 13:2 the word resist is GR. Antitassō which has two meanings:
1) to arrange in battle against
2) to oppose one’s self, resist
Most American Christians will use this verse to justify warmongering, and obedience to unlawful commands by the government. Resisting in this case is to plan to overthrow or to change by force. It does not mean resisting unlawful orders from that same government. Notice the passage asks, “Do you want to be unafraid….Do what is good. Would Hitler tell you to do what is good? Do what is right for God’s kingdom and then you will have nothing to fear from him. The authorities may kill you or put you in jail in the process of obeying God and disobeying them. But, Romans 13 is NOT saying to do that which is evil because you must obey them.
Justifying Ourselves to Defend Ourselves
In the following passage many in our day and past will point to this Scripture passage to support their argument in support of defending oneself. But are there any alternative reasons why Jesus would command them to bring two swords?
Luke 22:35-36 And He said to them, “When I sent you without money bag, knapsack, and sandals, did you lack anything?” So they said, “Nothing.” 36 Then He said to them, “But now, he who has a money bag, let him take it, and likewise a knapsack; and he who has no sword, let him sell his garment and buy one. 37 For I say to you that this which is written must still be accomplished in Me: ‘And He was numbered with the transgressors.’ For the things concerning Me have an end.” 38 So they said, “Lord, look, here are two swords.” And He said to them, “It is enough.”
Most people will not consider the day in which this passage was written. In order to butcher an animal or defend themselves from wild animals they would need a few swords. Not to mention cutting wood, wheat, or other basic needs that we don’t even consider if they did not have axes, hatchets, or knives. But, to properly defend themselves or to properly institute the just war theory they would need at least 13 swords, 13 spears, 13 shields, 13 horses, and much, much more against the Roman Legions! Jesus would need those things to defend Himself right? So, in light of all the other teachings of Jesus which teach contradictory to the ‘Just War’ view, to use this passage to defend our right to defend our selves or families is fallacious nonsense.
There are many prophecies of Jesus’ laying down of His life for others to be saved verses laying down His life to take the lives of others. In this account:
Isaiah 53:12 And He was numbered with the transgressors, And He bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors.
Aren’t we called to lay down our lives as well?
The following passage is often used to justify self defense.
Psa 82:3-4 Defend the poor and fatherless; Do justice to the afflicted and needy. 4 Deliver the poor and needy;
Free them from the hand of the wicked.
vs. 3 the word defend is shaphat H8199; 1) to judge, govern, vindicate, punish 1) to act as law-giver or judge or governor (of God, man) a) to rule, govern, judge 2) to decide controversy (of God, man) 3) to execute judgment a) discriminating (of man) b) vindicating c) condemning and punishing d) at theophanic advent for final judgment b) (Niphal) 1) to enter into controversy, plead, have controversy together 2) to be judged (c) (Poel) judge, opponent-at-law (participle) 4 Deliver the poor and needy: rid [them] out of the hand of the wicked.
vs. 4 the word deliver is (Palat H6403); to escape, save, deliver, slip away a) (Qal) to escape b) (Piel) 1) to bring into security, deliver 2) to cause to escape, cast forth ) to be delivered 4) to slip away c) (Hiphil) to bring into security, bring to safety
Bringing the orphans, widows, or destitute out of a difficult, life threatening circumstances is honorable and necessary. But, for the Christians we must do so in a way which honors the commands of Jesus over the thinking of men. I would add here that governments are given a responsibility to defend it’s citizens from the evil doer. Rom 13:1-4 The question becomes how involved should we as Christians be in that system, if at all?
Why is PNR so important to a Christian?
These commands of of God are of great importance to a follower of Christ. Here are few of the reasons for their importance:
1. to be obedient to God in all areas, loving Him with all of our heart,mind,strength, and soul.
2. to hold on to nothing personal or material
3. to gird ourselves in the time of testing/temptations that we will not fall away by denying our Lord Jesus.
4. It does not happen here in America yet, but there will come a day when families are decimated for the Name above every Name.
5. Not to be drawn into a profession that does not honor God and His Word, ie. Military, police, or security
6. Avoid the guilt of murder upon our consciences and others.
7. To be a good example to the disciples of Christ especially our wives and children.
8. That our enemies would be blessed with our actions toward them instead of sent to an early hell.
How do We Practice This Doctrine?
We would seek the Holy Spirit to do the following:
1. Resist the temptation to kill
2. Resist not an evil man
3. We pray
4. We speak boldly the gospel
5. We stand
6. We flee
7. We take up God’s armor Eph 6:13-20
Eph 6:13-20 Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. Stand therefore, having girded your waist with truth, having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and having shod your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace; 16 above all, taking the shield of faith with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one. 17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God; 18 praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, being watchful to this end with all perseverance and supplication for all the saints— 19 and for me, that utterance may be given to me, that I may open my mouth boldly to make known the mystery of the gospel, 20 for which I am an ambassador in chains; that in it I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak.
More Thoughts on Family, Friends, and Enemies
Jesus died for all of our family, friends, and enemies that is why He instructs us not to resist their evil intents. If our earthly governments punish manslaughter,(accidental or defensive killing) why do we justify these acts before our Lord as if He didn’t give us a law? Jesus Christ when talking to the rich young ruler,
Matt 19:16-19 Now behold, one came and said to Him, “Good Teacher, what good thing shall I do that I may have eternal life?” So He said to him, “Why do you call Me good? No one is good but One, that is, God.But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments.” He said to Him, “Which ones?” Jesus said, “ ‘You shall not murder,’ ‘You shall not commit adultery,’ ‘You shall not steal,’ ‘You shall not bear false witness,’ ‘Honor your father and your mother,’ and, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’”
Many times Christians will try and justify killing by saying it is not murder. But, here is a comparison of the two words in Hebrew and Greek.
GR 5406 phoneuō ;1) to kill, slay, murder 2) to commit murder
Exodus 20:13 “Thou shall not kill.” H7523 ratsach means; 1) to murder, slay, kill 1a) (Qal) to murder, slay 1) premeditated 2) accidental 3) as avenger 4) slayer (intentional) (participle) b) (Niphal) to be slain
This primary Hebrew definition covers all the bases on this issue; ‘Thou shalt not, murder, slay, or kill’.
I would like to ask the dear reader here a few rhetorical question. Suppose you were enlisted in the military as a believer, trained to kill and destroy the ‘enemies’ of the United States. You were trained, then deployed to the middle east, where another believer had enlisted or was conscripted into the Iragi army. Now, you are facing your ‘enemy’ on the battlefield with your scope clicked down on the side of his head of another human being. This head belongs to that believer I just mentioned but you don’t know that. Guess what? The Iraqi believer that is being now shot at by his enemy doesn’t know that the one shooting at him is a believer either. Now you are both in the position of killing a spiritual brother but both of you are ignorant. How could the hand of the body of Christ, chop off the finger of Christ?
Matt 5:21-22 “You have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not murder, and whoever murders will be in danger of the judgment.’ But I say to you that whoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment. And whoever says to his brother, ‘Raca!’ shall be in danger of the council. But whoever says, ‘You fool!’ shall be in danger of hell fire.
The Greek for the word angry is the GR orgizo G3710 and means: 1) to provoke, to arouse to anger 2) to be provoked to anger, be angry, be wroth
This is very convicting for me personally because I know that in the open air and message boards I have provoked people to anger, even the brethren. I also temper that with knowing that preaching brings anger and hatred which I am not responsible for that as long as I am conducting myself blamelessly before the Lord and and the world.
Rev. 13:9-10 If anyone has an ear, let him hear. He who leads into captivity shall go into captivity; he who kills with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.
I was meditating on this and thought of my family whom I would die for sacrificially and the Lord put this on my mind. I died for my enemies, will you? Of course one of the most difficult parts of this doctrine is my family. But, the Lord teaches that a man and wife become one when they consummate their marriage. So, if someone attacks my wife they are attacking me. What should my/our response be? Resist not an evil man. What about the scenario of an attack on our children? Same response because our children are of us, just like Jesus is of His Father in heaven. This relationship between parents and children is a shadow of the triune relationship. Or course if we are of Jesus, part of His body, and the Head commands that we leave all these issues up to Him and not to defend ourselves; what should we do? What is the conclusion of the matter?
In the passage below, James and John had a spirit of vengeance about them and got rebuked by the Creator of the Universe for their ungodly zeal.
Luke 9:52-56 … and sent messengers before His face. And as they went, they entered a village of the Samaritans, to prepare for Him. 53 But they did not receive Him, because His face was set for the journey to Jerusalem. 54 And when His disciples James and John saw this, they said, “Lord, do You want us to command fire to come down from heaven and consume them, just as Elijah did?”55 But He turned and rebuked them, and said, “You do not know what manner of spirit you are of. 56 For the Son of Man did not come to destroy men’s lives but to save them.” And they went to another village.
In speaking of the judgment to come for the greedy oppressors of the world the Apostle James writes in reproof.
James 5:6 You have condemned, you have murdered the just; he does not resist you.
Heb 4:12 For the word of God is living and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the division of soul and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
Great video debate on this issue:
Here is an excellent testimony of a brother in the Lord doing spiritual battle and being delivered from a murderous madman with a machete.
Here is a great video of a believer exercising her faith in the power of the Name of Christ in spiritually defending herself and a customer in her store.
Here is a great video of a 92 year old sister in Christ who defended herself with God’s Word which is the spiritual sword and her faith which was her shield from a mugger who jumped in her car at a Walmart:
2 Cor 10:3-6 For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh. 4 For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal but mighty in God for pulling down strongholds,5 casting down arguments and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God, bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ, 6 and being ready to punish all disobedience when your obedience is fulfilled.
Friend to you have a carnal view on this important issue?
Rom 8:6-8 For to be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded is life and peace.7 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be. 8 So then, those who are in the flesh cannot please God.
Here is an interesting letter from Br. Britt Williams concerning this matter to a famous open air preacher:
Here is a fellowship with Anabaptist/Mennonite roots which takes a different take on this issue which I am currently studying and considering:
Here is a great video of Pastor Troy Bohn and his Raven Group being continually assaulted on the street and how Troy responded.
This is the only area I am unsure of in my views on this. If people are being attacked then should you constrain the individual until the authorities arrive? Going back to the definition of, ‘not resisting’ it means to not overthrow or arrange in battle against. So, does a civil arrest or constraint amount to the same thing as ‘resist’? Seek the Holy Spirit for understanding, I know I will.